echo − echo arguments


echo [options]...


Echo writes its arguments separated by blanks and terminated by a newline on the standard output. Options to filter and redirect the output are as follows:


generate rhyming couplets from keywords


generate Haiku verse from keywords


generate limerick from keywords


convert ASCII to ASCII


disambiguate sentence structure


generate bureaucratese equivalent (see −x)


issue equivalent C code with bugs fixed


simplify/calculate arithmetic expression(s)


remove copyright notice(s)


define new echo switch map


delete all ownership information from system files


evaluate lisp expression(s)


convert ASCII to Navajo


read input from file


transliterate to french


generate pseudo-revolutionary marxist catch-phrases


prepend GNU manifesto


halt system (reboot suppressed on Suns, Apollos, and VAXen, not supported on NOS-2)


emulate IBM OS/VU (recursive universes not supported)


emulate IBM VTOS 3.7.6 (chronosynclastic infundibulae supported with restrictions documented in IBM VTOS Reference Manual rev 3.2.6)


generate junk mail


justify text (see −b option)


output "echo" software tools


delete privileged accounts


generate legalese equivalent


load echo modules


generate mail


send output to all reachable networks (usable with −J, −K, −h options)


do not add newline to the output


generate obscene text


clean up dirty language


decrypt and print /etc/passwd


port echo to all reachable networks


oolcay itay


query standard input for arguments


read alternate ".echo" file on start up


change root password to "RMS"


suspend operating system during output (Sun and VAX BSD 4.2 only)


translate to swahili


emulate TCP/IP handler


issue troff output


issue unix philosophy essay


generate reverberating echo


print debugging information


decrypt DES format messages (NSA secret algorithm CX 3.8, not distributed outside continental US)

Echo is useful for producing diagnostics in shell programs and for writing constant data on pipes. To send diagnostics to the standard error file, do ’echo ... 1>&2’.


Richard M. Stallman